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tv   KQED Newsroom  PBS  December 7, 2013 2:00am-2:31am PST

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next on "kqed newsroom," low-wage workers barely making ends meet. they protest toñi raisexd9wxjf minimum wage. >> thanksgiving ñidinner, christmas dinner, that's at( fantasy still for me. i can't afford any offá it. >> the movement is picking up steam here in the bay area and across the country. plus, stanford university design students tackle toughñi with an eye on affordability. >> you see the assignment? you're going to build a freátanding structure to you're going to build a bmns@?ñ and nelson mandela, his legacy and the impact on the bay area.q4&->> we must keep the pr
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apartheid until victory is reached. >> yes!e1okñie1w3xd "kqed newsroom," i'm thuy vu. on ñithursday, fast food worker bay area and across the country demanding anysñ increase in the bay area and across the ñr$15 a. it was the latest action in a nationwide push, and it comes on the heels of a recent backlasió low-wage employeesjf to work on thanksgiving. the movement is gaining momentum. president obama called for higher wages in a speech this wu >> i'm going to keep pushing until we get a higher minimum wage for hard-working americans across the entire country. it will be good for ouño econom. it will be goodt( for our
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families. >> some ec.6mmistsxd argue raisg the minimum wage could hurt the very people it'sq intended to help by killingxd jobs and pushg prices up. joiningçó me now to see discuss this further are ron unz with the higher wages alliance andñi ken jacobs with the u.c.çg7çñrx berkeley labor center. before welp dive into the discussion, let's look at what it's like to live on less than $10 anok hour through the eyesç one fastçó food worker. >> my name is guadalupe salazar. içó work at mcdonald's forxd 18 months jfalready. i work drive-thru window doing cashiering, taking orders. >> guadalupe salazar worksfá a 5:00 a.m. to 1:00 p.m. shift at the mcdonald's in oakland's east mont mall. >> i love workingrat mcdonald's.
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customers. to 40 hours a week, salazar says she's just scraping by. >> i make fá$8 per hour. with all the deductions, it comes out to xd$532 to a pay period. $8 per hour isrnot enough.r thatg)ñ'oé3 enough even for one only e(áájjy lake me, i'm a singlec mom --xd like me, i'm a single mom of a 6-year-old. i can2#hp#ford to have my daughter withrme full time like i wish. and i don't spend a lot ofxd moy because i try to save as much as possible just in case ofcñr something. so i basicallyt( eatxd off the menu. >> salazar says she saves up all year to take her daughuñ to the circus. always. the same or something like that. >> on thursday, salaz walked off the jobcw3 along with other
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fast foodñr workers around the country to highlight their plight. >><  we are striking, and we a striking because we want $15 per hour in theq union. >> salazar says a pay hikeq woud mean spending more money in the community and boosting thekomy economy. cupñi of okqnoodles. and basically i will be able to provide for my daughter which is very important for me.xdxdw3 having that kidñi happy, notçó 3 "oh, mommy, can i have jfthese,r money. sure, honesñ when it( have mone you can have anything you want.( áqat will be what i willt( do. >> that's guadalupe's statement. ron, i want to begin with you. you're the au!y?iñi of a new ballot initiative to raisefá california's minimum wage to %ò& an hour, lower than the $15xdq t
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guadalupe andñi her fellow fast food workers are asking for. what did you think of her story? >> well, i think it's a very realistic account of the day-to-day lives of so many of the low-wage workers in struggling under very difficult positions. and they don't have the dollar) to spend in our economy to revive us after this recession. >> and ken jacobs, do you think that the minimum wage should be raised to $15 an hour? what effectjf would that qhave? >> well, i think california does need a raise÷njf in the minimum wage. in fact, we will have one now going up to $10 over the next several years. what we92# seeing is in urban xd areas, certain citiesk a+m al ttj higher than lpthat. the city ofjf sea-tac just passd one, doesn't cover everyone, but airport and for hotels near the airport, the city of seattle's looking for a much higher minimum wage. what we've seen from the research on minimum wages in general is overalli] it has a tremendous boost in people's
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evidence shows either no impact on employment or very small. now we haven't looked at -- we haven't seen a broad-based past. wo calling for in their industry to have $15 an hour andt( añi unio. and it's -- it'sñpp sensibleç!ñó demand. >> there are a number of t(stud though, that will contradict what you're saying. for example, david newmark, economics professor at u.c. t( 5% reduction in employment. there'se1 ane1 economicst( prof at university of massachusetts amherst who says if we dojf lpt a $15 an hour, it could push up fast food prices by 20%. and hurting thefájfiúsery low-i families. that a higher minimum wage ist( intended to help because they often frequent fast food places meal, lower costxd type of meal.
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what do you make of those studies, that contradicts what you're saying.e1 >> if foot fad workers' -- fast food workers' wages were raised to $15 ane1 hour, that would be absorbed through a variety of ways. part of that is higheri] prices higher prices. part of it would be absorbed through the savings from lower turnover. the cost of hiring new worker, á workers, unemployment insurance. and then some part of the cost could be absorbed through lower in the f!rç food industry to reduce those franchise fees because the fast food industry is incredibly profitable, $7 billion in profits in the last year. >> do you think they would actually do xdthat, though, low franchise fees? >> the question is how much consumer pressure is there on ddressing the issues of their workers.cxdçó >> xdron,ú2u think $12 an hourf more reasonable than $15 an hour. why is that? >> it seems to me,i] obviously
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some point when you raise wages, the minimum wage too high, you really willouuxdok substantial s of employment which would be a problem. i thinkñi 12 is enough -- isvzr& enough to the existing level that you'd see minimal loss of i jobs. for example, if youq take ako company likeñr walmart that arod the country has hundreds of thousands ofñi çólow-wage worke studies have shown that ifjfçó raise the walmart wages to a minimum of +$12, walmart could absorb the costsfá by raising their prices 1% oneq time. it would cost the averagew3r year, which i think most people could affordi to pay. and it would put 4,000, 5,000, orçóñiñi ñi$6,000 a year more i pockets of workers and drive thr demand that walmart needs as a company. >> you did a study on this,çó talking about howçóçóxd a lot o low-income workers rely on public assistance. andñrñr that i think extends, a
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well, tot( low-income workers a big stores like walmart. and these aret(çó theok workers get food stamps, get medicaid, and rely on public assistance programs. is it a form of corporate welfare? >> exactly --e1 >> what these companies are doing? >> it'si] a classic case. a business obviously tries tolp privatize its benefitsr( thelp k of its workers, and socialize much as possible on to the backs of the (i,payers. if we had a çó$12 minimum wage the united states,q taxpayers around the country would save tens of billions of dollars because businesses would then havew3 tow3 payr>ñ their own wo instead of forcingçó the taxpays subsidies. we're talking about forcing businesses + stand on theirñiwá two feet rather than receiving corporate welfare. >> and ken, the u.c. berkeley laborxd center, isjf the centert did that study. >>xdxd that's right. we found that over half, 52% of the families of fast food
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workers, frontline fast food w3 workers,ñvie on one or morex$$& public assistance programs to make ends meet. that's truejf even for workers working 40 hours a week. we also found that only 13%=k31e )uj throughq their jobs. so int( order to get by, theye1d to rely on these public assisucnce programs. >> i should point out that we did reach out to business groups and severalxtó morexd conservat scholars who are on the other side of thist( debate, from whe you stand. and none werelp available. however, the national restaurant association did send us this di statement, and they're saying that the restaurant industry has been one of the few industriesf that continue to create jobs during thejf recession and thet economic recovery,c dramatic those called for in the ralliese1 that we've seen aroun thet( country. will challenge that job growth history, increase prices for restaurant meals, and lead to fewer jobs created. what do you e1áhink? >> the restaurant industry is
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growing quickly. the problem is not the number of jobs hereçó in the restaurant industry, it's the quality of jobs. you'll see some -- you potentially could see some effects on the margin. having morejf dollars in their pocket is really important. and i do want to clarify one thing. the fast food workers aren't calling for across-the-board $15 minimum waget(7oo throughout th united states. in some cities they're looking at higher minimum wages. we've seen that work in a city like san francisco. and they're calling for ajf uni industry.lp the fast food industry isfá the real question is between the organizing and consumer pressure and, inés some cases, public level minimum wage. can they get those wages up and make that difference.r >> this week, president obama weighed in.xd he's also calling forzv a high minimum wage now. do you think that will add tor the public pressure that you justt( mentioned? will it makerpp difference in shifting the debate? >> that's actually one reason i
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t%9-]z( initiative is such a powerful vehicle in something like this. people have been talking about raising the minimum wage at the federal level for a couple of yearsc3now. it moves in congress, it dies. suddenly, we talk -- we're talking about the voters of california deciding whether or not it makexd senseu for busins to pay their own employees rather than for the taxpayers to subsidize them. and i think a $12 minimum wage will be very popular in california and put aw3 lot of pressureçó on congress to consir hing similar on the federal level. minimum wage debate. ultimately, what do you thinkxdt will come down to,u though, foa solution?i] will iwr bdk mores7woñ %>ter o increased public pressure, -4jddq rp+e to go the legislati route? through referendums, through 4÷k initiatives, throughq local cit council measures? >> i think there's a mix. we need a higher national
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minimum wage, the senate will be debating $10.10 an hour. that makes sense nationally. which also given the economic difference between çóstates, an in urban z]areas, cities like s francisco, seattle, san jose,çó other places looking to have or will raisexd the minimum wages stronger unions. and if we look at what's happened in terms of some of the decline in wages in this country crew goes handjfjfxdçó in hand declinoi in sheriff's workers ad the union. that combination of organizingñ consumer pressure and policy makes the difference. thejf interesting thing now, seeing these organizations of fast foodjf worker, the workers, who are really bringing 55uuz out in a way that we haven't seen, i think that's the qok terms of making change. >>jf and a lot of you are conservative -- this isjfçó not normally a conservative cause. why are you embracing thisñw3c@ personally? >> xdwell, economicñi from a scientific background. a look at issues on a
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case-by-case basis. many times iw3 think the conservative side is the right one, sometime i don't. here interestingly w72enough, o i started going throughw3xd som these arguments,t(çó with conservatives i know including peopleñr who are very staunch conservati hey look at the issue in a new light. it's not a question of workers not getting these extra dollars. it's a question of who gives it to them. is it the employer ort( the taxpayer. i think itq makelp much more se for the taxpayers not to subsidize all these private businesses. axd income tax forcing businesses to payi]lp t own workers. >> do you agree? obviously you do. >> i think that'sc absolutely right.xd wefá -- where we're seeing, as mentioned earlier, where we're seeing the growth in the economo is in n these low-wage sectors. we've seen a decline inç middle-class jobs in the country. if we we need to do something to raise the bottom, get more
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consumer demand back in the economy, deal with some of the issue of qualiti. to do that, we've got raise the floor. and this combination of publice policies like minimum wage laws, organizing, we're seeing in consumer pressure, all can come together to begin to do that. >> okay. very interesting, and much more debate to come in the new year, i'm sure, with congressional calls, as well, for a federal minimum wage hike. soe1i] i want to thank you both being here. ken jacobs and ron unz, thanks for being with us. >> thank you. the bay area has long been known as an incubator ofxd innovation. one epicenterkñf that creativity of stanford, alsoñi knowne1 as the school.fá the d school nurtures outside--y(uitñ thinking in hopes of tackling+ of the worls toughest problems. it's the focus ofe1 a new
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documentrqxd called "extreme by design." it follows groups of stanfordìc& working to create extremely affordableó[i] solut to address poverty in the developing world.w3 scott shafer sat down with filmmakere1 ralph king ande1 foá student pamly potkov. first, here's a cliff from v= before departing for their teams must come up with several crude prototypes. >> this is a vertical axis wind turbine. it captures wind by using drag. so the firstñi prototype we bui was simply a balloon over a syringe. and it sort of works when y break ñiit.ñi+ >> you canko actually turn thi deviceçó çóon. this is why it'sxd called the bubble lpcpap device. it bubbles, and you can increase orçó decrease that. oops. >> this will be a real kind of epic personalñiw3ñiw3ñr journey. i feel like my life is about to
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change.ñiko >> yeah! >> ralphlpxd king andñr pam pot welcome. >> thank you.+ >> the basis of this film andkt the course is this design thinking concept. describe it. what is it? >> well,ñi design thinking i fe is thejniñi crown jewel of 21st century ed5ction. is a creative process. a way of unlocking yourt( inny(r creativity,lp and itsçó problem solvingñr lpessentially, steps problem solving. >> how is it different fromrír brainstorming? >> brainstorming is onew3jf ele. another element isxd empathetic listening. another is prototyping, actualló testing. so -- >> pam, youc were part of a tea thatñrñi went to bangladesh ande working on a breathing apparatus for little infantsñi with ok pneumonia. were some of the aha moments you had. >> sure.
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well, the firstxd step was real just garnering empathy for the patient population that we were seeking to serve. >> why is that so important? >> it really put ourselves in their shoese1 andt( understand belp using the solution. and really i empathize withñi t problem that they're experiencing. and so our firstjf objective wa really tojf get deep interest understanding neo-natal health and the challenges thm$úof in the developing world. >6k and you had to also develo with -- not only did it havexd to be affordable, but it had to be acceptable, culturally and t( otherwise. talk about that process. that's part of empathy, too, i guess. >> yes. to befálpxd incredibly important step but also a very daunting one in that understandingt( completely differenb@eulture and wayi] of life and then how that translates into actuallyñi gettó a solutionéz the patient. by the facte1 that there are so
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many stakeholders involved in its use. you have the patient being the child. mother most often. and you have the doctors%t nurses that are actually ljutwkiuq effectively failure is inevitable in a processe1 like this. describe the role of failure ank failing fast. >> well, it's encouraged in this design thinking proçam because you learnq;nç from failure moren you learn from "success." so the idea is to get your have people reacting to it so you can go back and do it again and again. each time, reflecting the learning as you go. >> pam, youxd -- in that clip w saw earlier, yout( talked about this is goingok to be a big chae for you. it's going to change youw3 personally. i want tolp play another clip. :m"ae=ui teammates in banglade. and we'll watch that and come back and talk.fáko >> i think it's really hard being hereq because you justt(
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you know, there's no difference between thet( way that like i lk and the way these moms are basically the samwt( it's totally random that i'mfá - >> yes. >> a student from california with every opportunity to treat içó hate that. 0 pam, did you know at the beginning ofçó this that you'd %9ìc& i would be ko to the country as part ofñi our ñrproject. i hadçó actually never been the. our family's not been there since india and bangladesh separated asa5 countries.xdxdq knowledge and insight as somebody+ originally from that partñr of theñiçó world in our  empathy-building. ñr that clip? it sm like it's a combination
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of guiltñi almost,j just like wonder at how am i here and situation they're in. >> yeah. i think in that particularw3+ guilt and kind of sick to my stomach fee>ip recognition that there was really no difference between myself and3w the patient populationw3 i was seeking to help in so many ñiwa. their situation actually felt hopeless, i wvó'd say, at that experience,xw(á feel exceptiona responsibility to kind of continue to tap in to that moment and feeling and apply it to contributing in some positiv1 way in recognition of the fact that, okyes, i am disproporti e disproportionately lucky.lp in fact,ñi i haven't earned tha right in many respects. >> i]jfralph, i know you're tak the concept of design thinking and using it in middle schoolsñ in east palo alto and redwood city. describe how it applies for kidá
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spot for introducing design thinking because the kids lfq=q11e crushed out of them y. which by high school many of them have. but what we've done is taken the teachings of the courset( and kd ofñixd simplified it. we have a workbook that we developed like this which we're testing now. and the hope is is thatlp in a ten-week deep dive and design thinking tha4ñá kids can start usefá iti] in their schoolwork. my goal is that within the next couple of years,ñi say 100,000 kids are using and students and us what do you want people who see this filme1o takeq away from it? ñú%9ma%i9ñ like them to be i would like them to think if they see a problem inq the worl that they can fix it. i would like for them to explore design thinking. >> theçó film is "extreme by
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design." thank you. earlierq today. "extreme by desqg7ñ premieres on wednesday, decembere1e1 12tht( 10:00 p.m.t(fá nelson mandela visited here shortly after his release from a south african prison in w31990. his appearance filled the openi coliseum. scott shovel afer is here to di the legacy left by nelson jf mandela. we had such a special uìc& did. you see tens -- we did. you see tens of thousands packing the coliseum. people are remembering the '80s and late '70s when berkeley and san francisco formed the hub of a movement that moved eastward. it was a real coalition of students,e1 labor, local officials, politicians, the
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all pressuring -- working together and pressuring the south african governmentcw3 to ultimately let mandela out of prison and then end apartheid. dellums was a key figure in that. he pretty much led the effortñrn congress it win federalñi sanctions against south africa andq spoke at that event in &ñ1 at the oakland coliseum. we actually have a clip from that. let's take a p,look. [ applause ] the unions stoodxdñr up! the people of thisçó community over and over stood çóup! stand up!ot/ [ cheers and applause ] >> give yourselves a hand! we made history.
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>>xd you know, the ñilpextraord thing is that dellums had introduced that time and again. whether it finally passed -- when it finally passed in ñi198 dominated by republicans, tha4yy about this week is thatt the time thesexd issues are verr divisive. people are on both sides. with the passage of time, you see which was the right side to be on, and you don'tok necessary know that at the xk&ment. but looking back, it's very clear that there were people way out in front. >>xd lookingq at that crew brou dellums talked aboutñi the cityf berkeley standing up. i was the student at fáu.c. berkeley in the mid 1980s.lp and that was such a hub for the anti-apartheid ñrxdprotests. some of the most powerful protest happened there. you know, in 1985, 10,000 students boycotted their classes the day after. about 160 people, protesters were arrested. and it's just -- it was such an electrifying ti%
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it was a topic that really united so many people from all that few topics,ok few leaders can. >> yeah. and i think that'sñi true of th bay area. it has been for a long time. people come here like you did and like i did from other places. they get here, and they often come from places where there wa3 oppression. a lack of t(freedom. they are so determined to be a part of any movement to expand the cause of freedom throughout the world. and i think this is a case of that happening here with nelson mandelalp and apartheid. >> it's extraordinary. after nearly three decades in prison,oç having lost his free for that long, hei] never lost s values. he always hung ouá to the belie that hatred doesn't accomplish anything. >> and you hope that maybe there will be lessons we can learn today in thisjf time of gridloc and partisan bitterness. >> fáyeah.fá a peace broker. moral compass. a man i don't thinkxd anyone wi forget. >> had a great conscience. >> thank you for sharing those
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insights. for allhon kqed's news coverage, go to i] >> i'm scott shafer, thank you very much for watching. >> i'm thuy vu. 
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